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Share your Durgapur Trip Experience. It consisted of several janapadas , or kingdoms. Shashanka murdered Rajyavardhana, the Buddhist king of Thanesar, and is noted for destroying the Bodhi tree at Bodhgaya , and replacing Buddha statues with Shiva lingams. It was followed by a shorter reign of the Hindu Sena dynasty. Subsequent Muslim conquests helped spread Islam throughout the region. The Bengal Sultanate was interrupted for a period of twenty years by a Hindu uprising under Raja Ganesha. Administration by governors appointed by the court of the Mughal Empire gave way to semi-independence under the Nawabs of Murshidabad , who nominally respected the sovereignty of the Mughals in Delhi.
The company gained the right to collect revenue in Bengal subah province in with the signing of the treaty between the East India company and the Mughal emperor following the Battle of Buxar in The Bengal famine of claimed millions of lives due to tax policies enacted by the British company. The Bengal Renaissance and the Brahmo Samaj socio-cultural reform movements significantly influenced the cultural and economic life of Bengal. The Indian National Army was subsequently routed by the British.
When India gained independence in , Bengal was partitioned along religious lines. The western part went to the Dominion of India and was named West Bengal , while the eastern part went to the Dominion of Pakistan as a province called East Bengal later renamed East Pakistan in The latter became the independent nation of Bangladesh in Both West and East Bengal experienced large influxes of refugees during and after partition in Refugee resettlement and related issues continued to play a significant role in the politics and socio-economic condition of the state.
During the s and s, severe power shortages, strikes, and a violent Naxalite movement damaged much of the state's infrastructure, leading to a period of economic stagnation. The Bangladesh Liberation War of resulted in the influx of millions of refugees to West Bengal, causing significant strains on its infrastructure. West Bengal politics underwent a major change when the Left Front won the assembly election, defeating the incumbent Indian National Congress.
The state's economic recovery gathered momentum after economic liberalisations were introduced in the mids by the central government. This was aided by the advent of information technology and IT-enabled services. Starting in the mids, armed activists conducted minor terrorist attacks in some parts of the state   while clashes with the administration took place at several controversial locations over the issue of industrial land acquisition,   which became a decisive reason behind the defeat of the ruling Left Front government in the assembly election. West Bengal is on the eastern bottleneck of India , stretching from the Himalayas in the north to the Bay of Bengal in the south.
The Rarh region intervenes between the Ganges delta in the east and the western plateau and high lands. A small coastal region is in the extreme south, while the Sundarbans mangrove forests form a geographical landmark at the Ganges delta. The main river in West Bengal is the Ganges, which divides into two branches. The Farakka barrage over the Ganges feeds the Hooghly branch of the river by a feeder canal, and its water flow management has been a source of lingering dispute between India and Bangladesh.
The western plateau region has rivers such as the Damodar , Ajay , and Kangsabati.
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The Ganges delta and the Sundarbans area have numerous rivers and creeks. Pollution of the Ganges from indiscriminate waste dumped into the river is a major problem. At least nine districts in the state suffer from arsenic contamination of groundwater , and as of , an estimated 1. West Bengal's climate varies from tropical savanna in the southern portions to humid subtropical in the north. The main seasons are summer, the rainy season, a short autumn, and winter. In early summer, brief squalls and thunderstorms known as Kalbaisakhi , or Nor'westers, often occur.
Monsoons bring rain to the whole state from June to September. During the arrival of the monsoons, low pressure in the Bay of Bengal region often leads to the formation of storms in the coastal areas. The Darjeeling Himalayan Hill region experiences a harsh winter, with occasional snowfall. From a phytogeographic viewpoint, the southern part of West Bengal can be divided into two regions: The coastal region of Purba Medinipur exhibits coastal vegetation; the predominant tree is the Casuarina.
A notable tree from the Sundarbans is the ubiquitous sundari Heritiera fomes , from which the forest gets its name. The distribution of vegetation in northern West Bengal is dictated by elevation and precipitation. For example, the foothills of the Himalayas, the Dooars , are densely wooded with sal and other tropical evergreen trees. Extant wildlife include Indian rhinoceros , Indian elephant , deer, leopard , gaur , tiger, and crocodiles , as well as many bird species.
Migratory birds come to the state during the winter. The Sundarbans are noted for a reserve project devoted to conserving the endangered Bengal tiger although the forest hosts many other endangered species such as the Gangetic dolphin , river terrapin , and estuarine crocodile.
West Bengal is governed through a parliamentary system of representative democracy , a feature the state shares with other Indian states. Universal suffrage is granted to residents. There are two branches of government. The legislature, the West Bengal Legislative Assembly , consists of elected members and special office bearers such as the Speaker and Deputy Speaker, who are elected by the members.
Assembly meetings are presided over by the Speaker or the Deputy Speaker in the Speaker's absence. The judiciary is composed of the Calcutta High Court and a system of lower courts.
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Executive authority is vested in the Council of Ministers headed by the Chief Minister although the titular head of government is the Governor. The Governor is the head of state appointed by the President of India. The leader of the party or coalition with a majority in the Legislative Assembly is appointed as the Chief Minister by the Governor, and the Council of Ministers are appointed by the Governor on the advice of the Chief Minister.
The Council of Ministers reports to the Legislative Assembly. Terms of office run for five years, unless the Assembly is dissolved prior to the completion of the term. Auxiliary authorities known as panchayats , for which local body elections are regularly held, govern local affairs. The state has one autonomous region, the Gorkhaland Territorial Administration.leondumoulin.nl/language/fairy/the-eraser-existential-musings.php
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As of , West Bengal is divided into 23 districts. Each district is governed by a district collector or district magistrate, appointed by either the Indian Administrative Service or the West Bengal Civil Service. Blocks consists of panchayats village councils and town municipalities. Asansol is the second-largest city and urban agglomeration in West Bengal after Kolkata. GSDP at current prices base — has increased from Rs 2,08, crores in —05 to Rs 8,00, crores in —,  reaching Rs 10,21, crores in The growth rate was It has been observed that there has been a slow but steady decline in the percentage share of industry and agriculture over the years.
Rice is the state's principal food crop. Rice, potato, jute , sugarcane, and wheat are the top five crops of the state. The Durgapur centre has established a number of industries in the areas of tea, sugar, chemicals , and fertilisers. Natural resources like tea and jute in and nearby parts has made West Bengal a major centre for the jute and tea industries. Years after independence, West Bengal is dependent on the central government for help in meeting its demands for food; food production remained stagnant, and the Indian green revolution bypassed the state.
However, there has been a significant increase in food production since the s, and the state now has a surplus of grains. In contrast, the service sector has grown at a rate higher than the national rate. In the period —, the average gross state domestic product GSDP growth rate was The economy of West Bengal has witnessed many twists and turns. The agricultural sector in particular rose to 8. In the same year, plans for a 30, crore Jindal Steel project was mothballed.
The tea industry of West Bengal has also witnessed shutdowns due to financial and political reasons.
However, over the years due to effective changes in the stance towards industrialisation, ease of doing business has improved in West Bengal. A leather complex has been built in Kolkata, smart cities are being planned closed to Kolkata and major roadway projects are in the offing to revive the economy. As of , the total length of surface road in West Bengal is over 92, kilometres 57, miles ; : The Kolkata metro is the country's first underground railway. Bagdogra Airport near Siliguri is a customs airport that offers international service to Bhutan and Thailand, besides regular domestic service.
Kolkata is a major river port in eastern India. Ferries are a principal mode of transport in the southern part of the state, especially in the Sundarbans area. Kolkata is the only city in India to have trams as a mode of transport, and these are operated by the Calcutta Tramways Company. The railway system is a nationalised service without any private investment.
In most of the state, cycle rickshaws , and in Kolkata, hand-pulled rickshaws and electric rickshaws , are used for short-distance travel. Languages of West Bengal . According to the provisional results of the national census, West Bengal is the fourth-most-populous state in India with a population of 91,, 7. Native Magahi speakers are found in Malda district.
Bengali, Hindi , Santali , Urdu , and Nepali. Religion in West Bengal . West Bengal is religiously diverse, with regional cultural and religious specificities. Although Hindus are the predominant community, the state has a large minority Muslim population. Christians, Buddhists, and others form a minuscule part of the population.
As of , Hinduism is the largest religion, with adherents representing The state contributes 7. The literacy rate is A study conducted in three districts of West Bengal found that accessing private health services to treat illness had a catastrophic impact on households. This indicates the importance of public provision of health services to mitigate against poverty and the impact of illness on poor households. West Bengal's total fertility rate was 1. Bengal's TFR of 1. The Bengali language boasts a rich literary heritage that it shares with neighbouring Bangladesh.
A notable music tradition is the Baul music, practiced by the Bauls , a sect of mystic minstrels.
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